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64

До сих пор использовался только один из типов материалов, поддерживаемых WPF для конструирования трехмерных объектов. Несомненно, DiffuseMaterial — наиболее часто используемый тип материала; он рассеивает свет во всех направлениях, подобно объекту реального мира.

При создании DiffuseMaterial просто указывается кисть в свойстве Brush. В рассмотренных ранее примерах использовались кисти сплошного цвета. Однако цвет, который будет виден, определяется цветом кисти и освещением. При наличии прямого, яркого освещения будет виден точный цвет кисти. Но если свет попадает на поверхность под утлом (как в предыдущих примерах с треугольником и кубом), то будет виден более темный, текстурированный цвет.

Интересно, что WPF позволяет создавать частично прозрачные трехмерные объекты. Простейший подход предусматривает установку свойства Opacity кисти, используемой для окрашивания материала, в значение меньше 1.

Типы SpecularMaterial и EmissiveMaterial работают немного по-разному. Оба дополнительно смешиваются с содержимым, расположенным под ними. По этой причине наиболее распространенный способ использования обоих типов материалов предусматривает их сочетание с DiffuseMaterial.

Рассмотрим SpecularMaterial. Он отражает свет намного интенсивнее, чем DiffuseMaterial. Яркостью отраженного света можно управлять через свойство SpecularPower. При использовании малого числа свет будет отражаться мягче, независимо от того, под каким утлом он падает на поверхность. Если указано большое число, то прямой свет будет отражаться ярче. Таким образом, малое значение SpecularPower дает размытый, рассеянный эффект, в то время как большое его значение — яркий, резкий.

Если поместить SpecularMaterial на темную поверхность, то это даст эффект, подобный стеклу. Однако SpecularMaterial чаще используется для добавления бликов к DiffuseMaterial. Например, применение белого SpecularMaterial поверх DiffuseMaterial создает поверхность, похожую на пластик, в то время как темный SpecularMaterial и DiffuseMaterial создает впечатление металла.

В пример ниже представлены две версии тора (трехмерного кольца). Версия слева использует обычный DiffuseMaterial. Версия справа добавляет поверх него SpecularMaterial. При этом блики появляются в нескольких местах, потому что сцена включает два источника прямого света, который направлен по-разному.

Чтобы скомбинировать две поверхности, их нужно упаковать в MaterialGroup. Ниже приведен код разметки:

<Window.Resources>
    <DiffuseMaterial x:Key="diffuse">
      <DiffuseMaterial.Brush>
        <SolidColorBrush Color="DarkBlue" />
      </DiffuseMaterial.Brush>
    </DiffuseMaterial>
    <EmissiveMaterial Brush="DarkRed" x:Key="emissive"/>
    <SpecularMaterial SpecularPower="24" x:Key="specular">
      <SpecularMaterial.Brush>
        <SolidColorBrush Color="LightBlue" Opacity="1.000000"/>
      </SpecularMaterial.Brush>
    </SpecularMaterial>
  </Window.Resources>
  <Grid>
    <Grid.RowDefinitions>
      <RowDefinition Height="Auto"></RowDefinition>
      <RowDefinition></RowDefinition>
    </Grid.RowDefinitions>

    <StackPanel Margin="0,5,0,0" HorizontalAlignment="Center" CheckBox.Click="chk_Click">
      <CheckBox Name="chkBackground"  Margin="3" IsChecked="True">Dark Background</CheckBox>
      <CheckBox Name="chkDiffuse"  Margin="3" IsChecked="True">DiffuseMaterial</CheckBox>
      <CheckBox Name="chkSpecular"  Margin="3" IsChecked="True">SpecularMaterial</CheckBox>
      <CheckBox Name="chkEmissive"  Margin="3">EmissiveMaterial</CheckBox>       
    
    </StackPanel>

    <Rectangle Name="rect" Grid.Row="1" Fill="Black"></Rectangle>
    <Viewport3D Grid.Row="1">
      <Viewport3D.Camera>
        <PerspectiveCamera x:Name="camera" FarPlaneDistance="10"
                           LookDirection="0,0,-1" UpDirection="0,1,0" 
                           NearPlaneDistance="0.2" Position="0,0,2" FieldOfView="35" />
      </Viewport3D.Camera>

      <ModelVisual3D>
        <ModelVisual3D.Content>
          <Model3DGroup x:Name="Scene">         
            
            <AmbientLight Color="#333333" />
            <DirectionalLight Color="#FFFFFF" Direction="-0.612372,-0.5,-0.612372" />
            <DirectionalLight Color="#FFFFFF" Direction="0.612372,-0.5,-0.612372" />

            
            <Model3DGroup x:Name="ring">            
              <Model3DGroup.Transform>
                <Transform3DGroup>                  
                  <RotateTransform3D>
                    <RotateTransform3D.Rotation>
                      <AxisAngleRotation3D Angle="0" Axis="0.9901928156 0 0.1397075084"/>
                    </RotateTransform3D.Rotation>
                  </RotateTransform3D>
                  <RotateTransform3D>
                    <RotateTransform3D.Rotation>
                      <AxisAngleRotation3D Angle="0" Axis="0 0.9901928156 0.1397075084"/>
                    </RotateTransform3D.Rotation>
                  </RotateTransform3D>
                </Transform3DGroup>
              </Model3DGroup.Transform>
              <GeometryModel3D x:Name="Torus01OR9GR10">
                <GeometryModel3D.Material>
                  <MaterialGroup x:Name="materialsGroup">
                    
                      <StaticResource ResourceKey="diffuse"></StaticResource>
                      <StaticResource ResourceKey="specular"></StaticResource>
                 
                  </MaterialGroup>
                </GeometryModel3D.Material>

                <GeometryModel3D.Geometry>
                  <MeshGeometry3D
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							/>
                </GeometryModel3D.Geometry>
              </GeometryModel3D>
            </Model3DGroup>
          </Model3DGroup>
        </ModelVisual3D.Content>
      </ModelVisual3D>
    </Viewport3D>
  </Grid>
SpecularMaterial

Если поместить материал SpecularMaterial или EmissiveMaterial на белую поверхность, то вообще ничего не будет видно. Это объясняется тем, что SpecularMaterial и EmissiveMaterial формируют свой цвет аддитивно, а белый цвет — это всегда смесь максимальной интенсивности красной, зеленой и синей составляющих. Чтобы увидеть полный эффект от SpecularMaterial и EmissiveMaterial, поместите их на черную поверхность (или используйте их поверх черного материала DiffuseMaterial).

EmissiveMaterial ведет себя еще более странно. Он сам излучает свет, а это означает, что зеленый EmissiveMaterial, отображаемый над черной поверхностью, будет выглядеть как плоский зеленый силуэт, независимо от того, содержит ли сцена какие-то другие источники света.

Опять-таки, можно получить и более интересный эффект, наложив EmissiveMaterial на DiffuseMaterial. Из-за аддитивной природы EmissiveMaterial цвета смешиваются. Например, если поместить красный EmissiveMaterial поверх синего DiffuseMaterial, то фигура окрасится к пурпурный оттенок. EmissiveMaterial добавит равномерно распределенный красный цвет по все поверхности фигуры, в то время как DiffuseMaterial будет текстурирован в соответствии с расположением источников света на сцене.

Свет, исходящий от EmissiveMaterial, не распространяется на другие объекты. Чтобы создать эффект объекта, который освещает другие соседние объекты, стоит разместить источник света (такой как PointLight) по соседству с материалом EmissiveMaterial.

Пройди тесты